Through various innovations, wireless transport technology has consistently surpassed capacity demands through 2G, 3G and 4G transitions and remains on trajectory to continue in a 5G network. Reliability of wireless backhaul products has never been better, and costs continue to decline especially relative to fiber-based options. From a product point of view, many good and reliable options exist that cover all frequency bands and form factors to solve the problem of backhaul, small cell and other sub-applications.
LTE mobile connectivity now exists in many more urban places than not. Virtually all big cities have multiple choices for LTE and most have at least one choice for LTE Advanced—the real 4G wireless. For example, you can see iPhone and Android users taking advantage of all this high-capacity coverage as they leisurely view high-definition YouTube videos without buffering and actually livestream major league sports in cafes, parks and just walking around at lunch.
- January 26, 2015
- 3.5G, 3G, 4G, convergence, emerging markets, enterprise services, fiber optic technology, IP, Layer 3, microwave networking, Microwave Radio, networking technologies, South Africa, tdm, Wireless Backhaul
In South Africa, as in many emerging markets, wireless backhaul has long been a proverbial bottleneck to network growth. Due to cost and logistics, fiber optic technology remains out of reach as a practical solution for most aggregation scenarios, save for urban applications where population density and shorter routes can justify the exorbitance.
Now with the advent of higher speed, higher throughput mobile phones and tablet PCs, higher-order networking technologies are being pressed into service. Standard microwave radio, while cost efficient and effective for crossing far-flung forests, monumental mountains and desiccated deserts with traditional payload such as voice calls and moderate data rate applications, was not designed for the connectivity and capacity requirements of Layer 3 services. Thus, the bottleneck has grown still narrower. Even to the point where standard microwave radio might be hitting its upper threshold for serving mobile broadband.
Technical marketing manager, Siphiwe Nelwamondo, recently sat down with Engineering News, to discuss these issues and the present and future of microwave radio backhaul in South Africa and across the continent. In addition, he delved into how microwave networking is bridging the radio-IP gap for Layer 3 services by running IP/MPLS protocols on converged microwave routers.
As more and more mobile services get pushed out to the edge of the access network, the imperative for Layer 3 will only grow. Even as 3.5G and 4G mobile users who depend on full-IP increase in number, a majority of second- and third-generation subscribers will continue to rely on circuit-based technology. Not to worry, Nelwamondo covers how TDM telephony will be supported in a converged microwave and IP environment.
The full article goes on to discuss how mobile operators will strategize providing enterprise services from the cellular base station with microwave networking, virtual routers and more.
- November 2, 2012
- 4G, backhaul, Business Development, Carrier Class, Chicago, Lake Michigan, Mobile network operator, mobile operators, OPEX, pole climbs, small cell
In Chicago, the waves on Lake Michigan were nearly as big as the controversy surrounding the topic of small cell backhaul at the 4G World show it hosted. (Photo credit: Pedco via Wikipedia)
4G World struggled a bit due to Hurricane Sandy, but went on as planned. Unfortunately, some speakers and attendees were not able to get to Chicago due to travel cancellations. I have to admit that watching surfers ride the big waves on Lake Michigan was an added bonus for the week!
Back at the show, small cell was the focus and backhaul was its No. 1 topic. Everyone has heard the concerns over technologies, costs, etc. The soapbox was available for anyone to jump on and espouse the potential benefits of their products. I believe that companies are selling their product capabilities, not addressing mobile operators’ real needs. Why? The biggest issue is that mobile operators, in most cases, really do not know what they need. The complexities of implementation are so diverse in small cell, that it is taking operators a long time to draw conclusions about their best path forward. Enter the fog of vendor technology pitches!
I believe that the real issues to be resolved center around implementation and OPEX control not technology. A few technologies could help, but they are not ready to provide the Carrier Class performance that the operators need. They will only have marginal effect on the final solution, in any event. What we need are answers to questions such as:
- Who can climb which poles in the city and to what heights?
- What are the power restrictions and cost of power on these poles?
- What size enclosure is allowed to be on the poles and on the ground?
- What are the aesthetic requirements for such an enclosure?
- What attachment height is needed to architect the best network for both access and backhaul?
Most people think fiber is a slamdunk—that is not the case. You need to read the fine print and ask:
- How plentiful are existing fiber onramps in the metro core area?
- What’s the cost of putting a new onramp in place and stringing fiber from below street level up poles to small cells?
- What piece of the action are municipalities going to demand for all this new telecom construction?
My recommendation: keep an eye on the technology evolution but focus on the real issues at hand. Partnerships with companies that have proven skills will be critical as these problems are best handled by a team of diverse thinkers. Look for ones that have a history in the business and have demonstrated innovation in all its facets. They are the partners who will get you through these very difficult problems.
Director Business Development
- October 19, 2012
- 4G, Chicago, LTE, milimeter wave, NLOS, non-line-of-sight, Non-line-of-sight propagation, PMP, point-to-multipoint, Point-to-multipoint communication, point-to-point, ptp, small cell, unlicensed spectrum
The 4G World show is in 10 days in Chicago, Ill. Speaking of 4G, those of us at Aviat Networks are excited to see what LTE technology will be on display and its promise of 4G speeds for our mobile networks. Confusion will mount as vendors address the myriad capabilities of LTE and the challenges of implementing such an amazing network. Small cell access will be a key topic. Mobile operators need these outdoor-mounted, street-level smaller versions of their LTE basestations to offload some of the overwhelming demand for capacity in metro areas.
One of the critical small cell challenges is backhaul. Imagine the complexity of aggregating traffic from the numerous small cells deployed at key intersections in a big city. Fiber cannot be everywhere and is not economical to operate in most metro locations. There is a lot of buzz around unlicensed Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) radios that take advantage of fewer installations than traditional Point-to-Point (PTP) microwave. But be careful of comparisons between PMP and PTP microwave…we hear a lot of hype, promulgated by confusion and relying on fear!
Unlicensed spectrum sounds good but suffers from serious interference issues. NLOS radio capacity drops significantly when trying to transmit around a building. You have to ask: Is the resultant capacity sufficient to serve this specific small cell backhaul need? There are also concerns over latency because LTE has strict delay requirements, and Voice over LTE (VoLTE) will really struggle if latency is not within specification. What about spectrum…is it actually available? Is there only 20 MHz of spectrum available when 40 MHz of capacity is needed?
What about good ol’ reliable and proven Line of Sight (LOS) PTP microwave? With the emergence of millimeter wave PTP radios, capacities up to 1Gbps can be achieved easily over 1-2 kilometers—certainly sufficient for metro small cell distances!
If you have a chance to attend the show, please take the time to ask some of these questions…or else you may be victimized by hype, confusion or fear.
If you would like to hear straight talk on this topic, tune into Aviat’s Small Cell Backhaul webinar. Stay tuned for future blog posts to read about spectrum, capacity, latency, FCC rule changes and technology evolution as the search for viable solutions to the small cell backhaul challenge continues!
Director Business Development
- July 13, 2012
- 3GPP Long Term Evolution, 4G, backhaul, Broadband, Ethernet, FCC, Federal Communications Commission, FierceWireless, LTE, microwave, public safety, PublicSafety, Telecommunication, Telecommunications network, Time-division multiplexing
(Photo credit: Chance W. Haworth via Wikipedia)
Public safety agencies will soon experience a dramatic improvement in communications capabilities enabled by advances in technology. New broadband multimedia applications will give first responders and commanders alike far better situational awareness, thereby improving both the effectiveness and safety of all personnel charged with protecting the public.
The specific technology, now mandated by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for all new emergency communications networks, is Long Term Evolution, or LTE—a fourth-generation (4G) broadband solution. The FCC has also allocated licensed spectrum to ensure the best possible performance in these new networks. These FCC rulings support the goal of achieving an interoperable nationwide network for public safety agencies.
The FCC chose LTE based on its proven ability to support voice, video and data communications at remarkably high data rates that were previously only possible with wired links. Although there will be some differences in a nationwide public safety network involving capacity and coexistence with Land-Mobile Radio communications, lessons learned from LTE’s deployment in large-scale commercial mobile operator networks will help ensure agencies are able to achieve the FCC’s goal cost-effectively.
Like building out the Interstate Highway System, the real challenge for LTE deployment in the U.S. lies in the actual construction. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Like the Interstate Highway system in the 1950s, building out a national LTE infrastructure in the U.S. is a major undertaking. The largest challenges in building out an LTE network consist of planning, staging and deploying the technology at maximum speed and with minimal costs. Mobile operators are in a tight race to build out LTE networks in the U.S. as quickly and cost-effectively as possible, and backhaul is a key component of the job.
There are more than 300,000 2G/3G cell sites in the United States; LTE penetration is at approximately 50,000 sites today. Mobile operators want to have 95% of their footprints covered with LTE within the next year or two, so a massive construction project lies ahead with a tight timeframe for completing it…see the entire article at Telecom Engine.
Senior Product Marketing Manager
- July 8, 2011
- 4G, aviat eclipse, Aviat Networks, backhaul, Backhaul (telecommunications), Base station, Data Communications, eclipse packet node, IPad, mobile, Mobile computing, mobile network, Next generation network, node, Telecommunication, White Paper, wireless, Wireless Backhaul
Image via Wikipedia
As 2G and 3G networks enter the upgrade path to 4G wireless, it will require that more than the base stations receive new wireless solutions. The path to LTE wireless—odds-on favorite to be the dominant 4G technology—is paved with increasing data demand from smartphones, iPads, other tablet PCs, electronic readers and probably some other intelligent mobile computing devices yet to be imagined.
All these devices will place throughput demands on the base stations, which in turn will place greater demands on the mobile backhaul network. Even as 4G devices place demands on mobile backhaul, the 2G and 3G technologies will be in place for sometime, coexisting in the same networks with 4G. In these situations, IP/Ethernet will be the next-generation networks‘ transport technology of choice.
- June 24, 2011
- 4G, Aviat Networks, BlackBerry PlayBook, eclipse packet node, eclipse radio, encryption, GSM, IPad, iPhone, Microwave backhaul, Security, strong security, strong security on eclipse packet node overview, Wi-Fi, wireless, Wireless Backhaul, Wireless security
Image via Wikipedia
When people think of mobile security, they usually think of encryption for their smartphones, tablet computers such as the BlackBerry PlayBook or other wireless devices. Or they think of a remote “wipe” capability that can render any lost device blank of any data if some unauthorized party did in fact try to enter the device illegally. These wireless solutions are all state-of-the-art thinking in the mobile security community. And many wireless equipment OEMs and third-party mobile security providers offer them.
But they only protect the data on the devices. They only protect so-called “data at rest” once it’s been downloaded onto the iPhone or iPad. They don’t speak to the need to cover “data in motion” as it is transmitted over the air. Some parts of the over the air journey are protected by infrastructure in the form of Wi-Fi and GSM. One is notoriously subject to human failing to enable security and the other has been broken for sometime. And then there is wireless security for backhaul. In this area, there has not even been an industry standard or de facto standard established. And most microwave solutions providers don’t even offer options for wireless security on the backhaul.
Fortunately, this is not the case across the board. Strong Security on the Eclipse Packet Node microwave radio platform offers three-way protection for mobile backhaul security: secure management, payload encryption and integrated RADIUS capability. Read the embedded overview document in full-screen mode for more details:
- June 17, 2011
- 3GPP Long Term Evolution, 4G, Aviat Networks, Microwave backhaul, Power line communication, smart grid, WiMAX, wireless, Wireless Backhaul, wireless technology, wirless backhaul, Zigbee
Image via Wikipedia
Smart Grid is an enabling opportunity for operators to help address energy generation and consumption in an intelligent and efficient manner.
The explanation of Smart Grid solutions in this comparison chart should help to clarify the various choices for wireless connectivity—from access to backhaul, for data or management transmission—using any one or a combination of various technologies.
It compares various wireless technologies for wireless applications related to Smart Grid communications. It also covers general information such as “How to use in Smart Grid,” key advantages and notable weaknesses.
Key technical parameters such as bandwidth, coverage, user data rates and cost are also considered. Microwave, WiMAX, Mesh, LTE, 3G cellular, Power Line Carrier, WLAN and Zigbee are described.
If you like this chart and want to receive a complimentary hard copy version, leave a comment with your name and mailing address (your comment won’t be published). There is an extremely limited number of stock on hand, and we will fulfill as many requests as possible.